Machinery and techniques

 
Machinery and equipment developed in the last fifteen years or so has radically changed the profession of land surveying
Machinery and equipment developed in the last fifteen years or so has radically changed the profession of land surveying
(© SETRA, MireTopo)

 

If surveying has undergone major changes in its methods and the results which it achieves, that is mainly due to the advance in the equipment and instruments which the surveyor uses.

This evolution started forty years or so ago with the invention of theodolites which allowed the simultaneous measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Prior to that innovations had been slow and sporadic but, thereafter progress quickly accelerated.

Thirty years or so ago distance measuring equipment took the place of the measuring chain which surveyors previously used.. Ten years later, tacheometers marked another step forward with their capacity to simultaneously measure horizontally and vertically. At the same time, manual levelling equipment evolved, with electronic levels appearing later at the beginning of the 1990s.

Within the same decade, the use of 3D laser scanners and of course, GPS (one of the uses for which is the guidance, ie remote control, of plant and machinery) began to expand. GPS, an American satellite positioning system, was authorised for civilian use from 1993 which, for the surveying profession, marked the beginning of a radical and continuing change in the techniques which it employs. Satellite Information Systems are another aspect of the same change, since they also supply a global view of the many aspects related to the development of the territory...

 
 
 
 
Tacheometers and total stations
Published on 5 April 2010 (updated on 4 May 2010)
 
Levels
Published on 4 May 2010
 
GPS and GNSS
Published on 5 April 2010
 
3D laser scanners
Published on 5 April 2010